Determinants of Nonmedically Indicated In-Hospital Supplementation of Infants Whose Birthing Parents Intended to Exclusively Breastfeed
Despite high rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed, rates of exclusive breastfeeding in Canada are low. Supplementation may begin in hospital and is associated with reduced breastfeeding duration.Research aim:
The aim of this investigation was to explore determinants of in-hospital nonmedically indicated supplementation of infants whose birthing parents intended to exclusively breastfeed.Methods:
This study is a cross-sectional one-group nonexperimental design, focused on participants who intended to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months (n = 496). Data were collected between October 2011 and October 2015 in Newfoundland and Labrador. Variables measured included age; rural/urban location; education; income; race; marital status; parity; smoking status; having been breastfed as an infant; previous breastfeeding experience; Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale score; delivery mode; infant birth weight; birth satisfaction; skin-to-skin contact; length of participant’s hospital stay; breastfeeding advice from a lactation consultant, registered nurse, or physician; and first impression of breastfeeding. We evaluated determinants of in-hospital nonmedically indicated supplementation using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.Results:
Overall, 16.9% (n = 84) of infants received nonmedically indicated supplementation in hospital. Multivariate modeling revealed four determinants: low total prenatal Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.18, 3.27]), no previous breastfeeding experience (OR = 2.03, 95% CI [1.15, 3.61]), negative first impression of breastfeeding (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [1.61, 4.43]), and receiving breastfeeding advice from a hospital physician (OR = 2.86, 95% CI [1.59, 5.15]).Conclusion:
Elements of the hospital experience, self-efficacy, and attitudes toward infant feeding are determinants of nonmedically indicated supplementation of infants whose birthing parents intended to exclusively breastfeed.