Prevalence and Clinical Implication of Double Mutations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Revisiting the Gene-Dose Effect

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Available data suggests that double mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are not rare and are associated with a more severe phenotype. Most of this data, however, is based on noncontemporary variant classification.

Methods and Results—

Clinical data of all hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with 2 rare genetic variants were retrospectively reviewed and compared with a group of patients with a single disease-causing variant. Furthermore, a literature search was performed for all studies with information on prevalence and outcome of patients with double mutations. Classification of genetic variants was reanalyzed according to current guidelines. In our cohort (n=1411), 9% of gene-positive patients had 2 rare variants in sarcomeric genes but only in 1 case (0.4%) were both variants classified as pathogenic. Patients with 2 rare variants had a trend toward younger age at presentation when compared with patients with a single mutation. All other clinical variables were similar. In data pooled from cohort studies in the literature, 8% of gene-positive patients were published to have double mutations. However, after reanalysis of reported variants, this prevalence diminished to 0.4%. All patients with 2 radical mutations in MYBPC3 in the literature had severe disease with death or heart transplant during the first year of life. Data on other specific genotype–phenotype correlations were scarce.


Double mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are much less common than previously estimated. With the exception of double radical MYBPC3 mutations, there is little data to guide clinical decision making in cases with double mutations.

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