Infant milk fat droplet size and coating affect postprandial responses in healthy adult men: a proof-of-concept study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18–25 years, BMI: 18–25 kg/m2) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control).

RESULTS:

Postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations tended to increase faster after intake of Concept IMF (P = 0.054), but peaked 3 h after intakes at similar concentrations. ApoB48 increased steadily and peaked 3 h after consumption. Increases in plasma glucose concentrations were comparable, but peak concentrations were reached faster after consumption of Concept IMF (P < 0.05). Peak insulin concentrations were higher and reached earlier after intake of Concept IMF, causing a sharper decremental glucose rebound (P < 0.05) and an earlier time to nadir in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (P < 0.01). Changes in plasma amino acids (AA), apoB100 and apoA1 were comparable. The incremental or decremental areas under-the-curve did not differ between Concept and Control IMF. Satiety scores and changes in the satiety hormones ghrelin and peptide YY were comparable, while cholecystokinin responses were earlier and higher after consumption of Control IMF (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

This proof-of-concept study suggests that fats and carbohydrates from the Concept IMF with larger and phospholipid-coated fat droplets are more rapidly absorbed than those from the current IMF.

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