Opposite chromosome constitutions due to a familial translocation t(1;21)(q43;q22) in 2 cousins with development delay and congenital anomalies: A case report

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Abstract

Rationale:

Chromosomal rearrangements are the major cause of multiple congenital abnormalities and intellectual disability.

Patient concerns and diagnosis:

We report 2 first cousins with unbalanced chromosomal aberrations of chromosomes 1 and 21, resulting from balanced familial translocation. Chromosome microarray analysis revealed 8.5 Mb1q43q44 duplication/21q22.2q22.3 deletion and 6.8 Mb 1q43q44 deletion/21q22.2q22.3 duplication. Among other features, cognitive and motor development delay and craniofacial anomalies are present in both patients, whereas congenital heart defect and hearing impairment is only present in patient carrying 1q43q44 duplication/21q22.2q22.3 deletion.

Lessons:

In this report, we provide detailed analysis of the phenotypic features of both patients as well as compare our data with previously published reports of similar aberrations and discuss possible functional effects of AKT3, CEP170, ZBTB18, DSCAM, and TMPRSS3 genes included in the deleted and/or duplicated regions. Partial trisomy 1q/monosomy 21q has only been reported once before, and this is the first report of partial monosomy 1q/trisomy 21q. The expressed phenotype of mirroring chromosomal aberrations in our patients supports the previous suggestion that the dosage effect of some of the genes included in deleted/duplicated regions may result in opposite phenotypes of the patients.

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