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To characterize Internet and social media use among adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with Internet use between those with and without TBI.Ten Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems centers.Persons with moderate to severe TBI (N = 337) enrolled in the TBI Model Systems National Database and eligible for follow-up from April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015.Prospective cross-sectional observational cohort study.Internet usage survey.The proportion of Internet users with TBI was high (74%) but significantly lower than those in the general population (84%). Smartphones were the most prevalent means of Internet access for persons with TBI. The majority of Internet users with TBI had a profile account on a social networking site (79%), with more than half of the sample reporting multiplatform use of 2 or more social networking sites.Despite the prevalence of Internet use among persons with TBI, technological disparities remain in comparison with the general population. The extent of social media use among persons with TBI demonstrates the potential of these platforms for social engagement and other purposes. However, further research examining the quality of online activities and identifying potential risk factors of problematic use is recommended.