Sleep apnea syndrome, inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients

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Abstract

Introduction:

Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is an established cardiovascular risk factor in the general population related to inflammation and oxidative stress and is very common among hemodialysis patients. Cardiovascular disease and its complications is the main cause of death among hemodialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of SAS in the promotion of inflammation and oxidative stress and thus in the augmentation of cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

Methods:

Thirty-seven hemodialysis patients underwent an overnight full polysomnography study. The following morning blood samples were obtained and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), IL-6 (interleukin-6), MPO (myeloperoxidase), and oxLDL (oxidized low density lipoprotein) were measured.

Findings:

We investigated the correlation of patients' markers of inflammation and oxidative stress with their sleep parameters (total sleep time, AHI, apnea/hypopnea index; RDI, respiratory disturbance index; DI, desaturation index, mean and minimum SpO2 and percentage of sleep time with SpO2 < 90%). TNF-α correlated positively with BMI (r = 0.510, P < 0.0001) and total sleep time (r = 0.370, P = 0.027). IL-6 correlated positively with age (r = 0.363, P = 0.027), AHI (r = 0.385, P = 0.018), DI (r = 0.336, P = 0.042) and percentage of sleep time with SpO2 < 90% (r = 0.415, P = 0.012) and negatively with mean SpO2 (r = −0.364, P = 0.027). Myeloperoxidase correlated positively with AHI (r = 0.385, P = 0.018), DI (r = 0.380, P = 0.02) and percentage of sleep time with SpO2 < 90% (r = 0.388, P = 0.019). Finally, oxLDL correlated positively with BMI (r = 0.443, P = 0.007), AHI (r = 0.395, P = 0.015), RDI (r = 0.328, P = 0.048) and total sleep time with SpO2<90% (r = 0.389, P = 0.019).

Conclusions:

These results indicate that, in hemodialysis patients, the severity of SAS and nocturnal hypoxia correlated positively with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

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