Detailed Follow-up Study of Pediatric Orofacial Granulomatosis Patients

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Abstract

Objectives:

Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the orofacial area. Its connection to Crohn disease (CD) is debated. Our aim was to describe a cohort of pediatric patients with OFG in detail, study the long-term behavior of OFG, and evaluate factors predicting CD in patients with OFG.

Methods:

We invited patients diagnosed with OFG at 2 university hospitals, Finland for a follow-up appointment. Patients (n = 29) were examined by a dentist and an otorhinolaryngologist using a structural schema. Orofacial findings were also recorded using digital photographing. Patients filled in questionnaires about general health and special diets. Patients’ nutrition was evaluated from food records. The findings were compared between patients with OFG only and OFG with CD.

Results:

Patients with CD had more findings in the orofacial area (total score for orofacial findings median 11) compared to patients with OFG only (total score median 7.5). There was no statistically significant difference in the type of lesions between these groups, except the upper lip was more often affected in patients with CD (n = 11) than in patients with OFG only (n = 0). Most of the patients had normal otorhinolaryngological findings. All patients with elevated anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody A levels had CD (n = 6) and they presented with more orofacial findings (total score) than patients with normal levels of anti–S cerevisiae antibody A (P = 0.0311).

Conclusions:

Long-term follow-up of pediatric-onset patients with OFG shows good prognosis. Patients with OFG do not seem to have otorhinolaryngological comorbidity. Anti–S cerevisiae antibody A may serve as a factor to indicate the possible presence of underlying CD in patients with OFG, but further studies are requested.

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