Prehospital removal improves neurological outcomes in elderly patient with foreign body airway obstruction

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Abstract

Objective:

In Japan, the number of patients with foreign body airway obstruction by food is rapidly increasing with the increase in the population of the elderly and a leading cause of unexpected death. This study aimed to determine the factors that influence prognosis of these patients.

Methods:

This is a retrospective single institutional study. A total of 155 patients were included. We collected the variables from the medical records and analyzed them to determine the factors associated with patient outcome. Patient outcomes were evaluated using cerebral performance categories (CPCs) when patients were discharged or transferred to other hospitals. A favorable outcome was defined as CPC 1 or 2, and an unfavorable outcome was defined as CPC 3, 4, or 5.

Results:

A higher proportion of patients with favorable outcomes than unfavorable outcomes had a witness present at the accident scene (68.8% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.0154). Patients whose foreign body were removed by a bystander at the accident scene had a significantly high rate of favorable outcome than those whose foreign body were removed by emergency medical technicians or emergency physician at the scene (73.7% vs. 31.8%, P < 0.0075) and at the hospital after transfer (73.7% vs. 9.6%, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions:

The presence of a witness to the aspiration and removal of the airway obstruction of patients by bystanders at the accident scene improves outcomes in patients with foreign body airway obstruction. When airway obstruction occurs, bystanders should remove foreign bodies immediately.

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