Activation of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated autophagy pathway attenuates the anticancer activity of gemcitabine in human bladder cancer cells
The role of autophagy in the anticancer activity of gemcitabine (GEM) in bladder cancer is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine whether GEM activates autophagy, the role of autophagy in the anticancer activity of GEM, and the underlying mechanism by which GEM induces autophagy. Human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and BIU87 were treated with GEM in vitro. Cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V assay and western blot. Autophagy was measured by western blot and transmission electron microscopy. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected by western blot. Chemical inhibitors were used for intervention of JNK and autophagy. GEM killed bladder cancer cells, which was associated with apoptosis induction. Autophagy was effectively activated by GEM. Suppressing autophagy in GEM-treated cells significantly decreased cell viability, which was associated with increased apoptosis. GEM-induced JNK activation and suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 expression. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited GEM-induced autophagy activation and increased GEM’s cytotoxicity. GEM kills bladder cancer cells through apoptosis. Meanwhile, JNK-mediated autophagy was activated, which protects the cells against apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of autophagy could be exploited to enhance the anticancer efficacy of GEM for treating bladder cancer.