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Organ/Space surgical site infections (SSI) must also meet one of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) site-specific healthcare associated infection criterion.Bloodstream infections (BSIs) should be evaluated to determine if they represent a secondary BSI to a primary SSI.The SSI event detail “Present at the Time of Surgery (PATOS)” should only be considered at the time of SSI investigation.This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network's (NHSN) health care–associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN's HAI surveillance definitions among infection preventionists and accurate determination of HAI events. This specific case study focuses on the definitions found within the surgical site infection (SSI) protocol. It aims to reflect the real life and complex patient scenario surrounding a bloodstream infection that is secondary to an SSI and the application of the Present at the Time of Surgery event detail. An online survey link is provided where participants may confidentially answer questions related to the case study and receive immediate feedback in the form of correct answers and explanations and rationales. Details of the case study, answers, and explanations have been reviewed and approved by NHSN staff. We hope that participants take advantage of this educational offering and thereby gain a greater understanding of the NHSN's HAI surveillance definitions.