Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a major source of osteoblasts and are crucial for bone remolding and repair and thus they are widely used for tissue engineering applications. Tissue engineering in combination with gene therapy is considered as a promising approach in new bone regeneration. Endothelin-1 (EDN-1) is produced by vascular endothelial cells which plays an important role during bone development. However, its role in BMSCs remains largely unknown. We established EDN-1 overexpressed BMSCs, proliferation ability and osteogenesis differentiation were detected respectively. Transduced BMSCs were then combined with CPC-scaffold to repair calvarial defects in rats to evaluate the in-vivo osteogenic potential of EDN-1. EDN-1 overexpressed BMSCs showed increased proliferation and significantly increased osteogenesis potential ability than vector transfected control. The in-vivo data also revealed more new bone formation with higher bone mineral density and number of trabeculae in EDN-1 overexpressed BMSCs. These findings have demonstrated the influence of EDN-1 on differentiation potential of BMSCs, which suggest that EDN-1 may be a new promising agent for bone tissue engineering.