Impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50–59 weeks. We investigated concentration–relaxation curves for acetylcholine (at age 50–53 weeks), NS309 (an activator of small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) (at age 50–53 weeks), and GSK1016790A (an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4, TRPV4) (at age 58 or 59 weeks) in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin to investigate EDH-type responses in the superior mesenteric artery. Obesity, mild hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia (i.e., increased total cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids) were more frequent in OLETF rats than in age-matched LETO rats at age 50–53 weeks. Acetylcholine-, NS309-, and GSK1016790A-induced relaxations in arteries from OLETF rats were all significantly reduced compared to those in LETO rats. These results indicated that EDH-type relaxations were impaired in female OLETF rats. This novel experimental model may provide new insights into vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome in females.