The T cell receptor (TCR) is the binding site of antigen and is responsible for specifically activating the adaptive immune response. CD3, an essential component of the CD3-TCR complex, is known to be composed of γδ and ε chains in teleost. However, there are few monoclonal antibodies (mAb) available to identify these molecules on T cells, so we aimed to produce a mAb against CD3ε to improve our understanding of T cell immune response in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). CD3ε recombinant protein was expressed in yeast, the expression of which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and Western blot analysis. A CD3ε-specific mAb 4B2 was selected, the specificity of which was examined by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and RT-PCR, and the mAb was subsequently used to examine the CD3ε lymphocyte population in several different immune organs, with relatively high percentages of these cells seen in trunk-kidney and spleen, while lower percentages were seen in the liver and peripheral blood of olive flounder. During a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection in olive flounder, the number of CD3ε lymphocytes was seen to gradually increase in the liver, spleen and trunk-kidney of infected fish until 7 days post infection (dpi). In peripheral blood, on the other hand, the increase in CD3ε lymphocyte numbers peaked by 3 dpi. These results suggest that CD3ε lymphocytes might be involved in the immune response against VHSV.