IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion distinguish two radiological patterns of diffuse low-grade gliomas.

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Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) prognosis is variable, depending on several factors, including the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and the 1p19q codeletion. A few studies suggested associations between these parameters and tumor radiological characteristics including topography. Our aim was analyzing the correlations between the IDH and 1p19q statuses and the tumor intracerebral distribution (at the lobar and voxel levels), volume, and borders. We conducted a retrospective, monocentric study on a consecutive series of 198 DLGG patients. The IDH and 1p19q statuses were recorded. The pre-treatment magnetic resonance FLAIR imagings were reviewed for determination of lobar topography, tumor volume, and characterisation of tumor borders (sharp or indistinct). We conducted a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis to investigate the correlations between the IDH and 1p19q statuses and topography at the voxel level. The IDH mutation and 1p19q statuses were correlated with the tumor topography defined using lobar anatomy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Frontal tumors were more frequently IDH-mutant (87.1 vs. 57.4%) and 1p19q codeleted (45.2 vs. 17.0%) than temporo-insular lesions. At the voxel level, these associations were not found. Tumors with sharp borders were more frequently IDH-mutant (p = 0.001) while tumors with indistinct borders were more frequently IDH wild-type and 1p19q non-codeleted (p < 0.001). Larger tumors at diagnosis (possibly linked to a slower growth rate) were more frequently IDH-mutant (p < 0.001). IDH wild-type, 1p19q non-codeleted temporo-insular tumors are distinct from IDH-mutant, 1p19q codeleted frontal tumors. Further studies are needed to determine whether the therapeutic strategy should be adapted to each pattern.

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