Cardiac tumours are a rare, but often devastating, clinical diagnosis. They encompass a broad set of lesions that include both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. Cardiac tumours are often diagnosed incidentally during work-up for other conditions, or during ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans for unusual or nonspecific symptoms. In the past decade, important changes have been made in the nomenclature and the recommendations for diagnosis of cardiac tumours, as highlighted by the WHO's 2015 revision of the classification of cardiac tumours. Moreover, important advances in molecular genetics and therapeutics offer new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of affected patients. In this Review, we provide an overview of the clinical, pathological, and imaging characteristics of all types of cardiac masses, including both benign and malignant primary cardiac neoplasms.