An inflammatory bowel disease–risk variant in INAVA decreases pattern recognition receptor–induced outcomes
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulation in both cytokines and responses to intestinal microbes, and proper regulation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling is critical for intestinal immune homeostasis. Altered functions for the IBD risk locus containing rs7554511, which encompasses the C1orf106 gene (recently named INAVA), and roles for the protein encoded by the INAVA gene are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of INAVA and INAVA genotype in regulating PRR-initiated outcomes in primary human cells. Both peripheral and intestinal myeloid cells expressed INAVA. Upon PRR stimulation, INAVA was required for optimal MAPK and NF-κB activation, cytokine secretion, and intracellular bacterial clearance. INAVA recruited 14-3-3τ, thereby contributing to recruitment of a signaling complex that amplified downstream signals and cytokines. Further, INAVA enhanced bacterial clearance by regulating reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen, and autophagy pathways. Macrophages from rs7554511 C risk carriers expressed lower levels of INAVA RNA and protein. Lower expression was attributed in part to decreased transcription mediated directly by the intronic region containing the rs7554511 C variant. In rs7554511 C risk carrier macrophages, lower INAVA expression led to decreased PRR-induced activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways, cytokines, and bacterial clearance pathways. Thus, IBD-associated polymorphisms in INAVA modulate PRR-initiated signaling, cytokines, and intracellular bacterial clearance, likely contributing to intestinal immune homeostasis.