The association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and allopurinol-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was evaluated through a pooled analysis of published studies.Methods
A comprehensive search was performed in multiple databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and Science Direct. Studies investigating the association between HLA alleles with allopurinol-induced SJS or TEN were retrieved, and the data were independently extracted. The overall odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the association between the presence of HLA variant in at least one allele and allopurinol-induced SJS or TEN. To test the robustness of the meta-analysis results, a sensitivity analysis was performed by removing each study one at a time and calculating the pooled ORs of the remaining studies. The fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the collected data.Results
A total of 4 studies with 81 allopurinol-induced SJS or TEN cases and matched controls (allopurinol-tolerant patients) or population controls (general population) were identified. SJS and TEN were found to be significantly associated with HLA-A*33:03 and HLA-C*03:02 alleles in both groups of studies with matched controls and population controls. All of the pooled ORs were not significantly affected by the remaining studies and different modeling methods, indicating robust results.Conclusion
A strong association was found between HLA-A*33:03 and HLA-C*03:02 alleles and allopurinol-induced SJS or TEN, especially in an Asian population.