During massive hemorrhage, it is recommended to transfuse red blood cells, platelet concentrate, and fresh-frozen plasma in a ratio close to 1:1:1. To avoid the thawing process of fresh frozen plasma, lyophilized plasma (LP) is increasingly used. Evidence is limited on the activity of coagulation factors in reconstituted blood using LP and concentrated LP versions.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
Whole blood from ten healthy volunteers was separated into red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma, and platelet concentrate units. Aliquots of red blood cells and plasma concentrate were mixed with either fresh frozen plasma (200 mL) or LP at reconstitution ratios of 2:1:1, 1:1:1, and 1:1:2. LP was used either at the recommended standard volume of 200 mL (LP200) or was more concentrated at volumes of 100 and 50 mL (LP100 and LP50, respectively). The hemostatic capacity of each reconstituted whole blood sample was tested with blood cell counts, standard coagulation tests, factor activity, thrombin generation, and viscoelastic assays.RESULTS:
Hematocrit, platelet counts, and fibrinogen levels of the three ratios were similar between FFP200 and LP200 units but were lower compared with the corresponding ratios in LP100 and LP50 units. The activity of procoagulant and anticoagulant factors increased linearly with the increasing plasmatic fraction and, at 1:1:2 ratio, was significantly higher in LP50 units compared with FFP200 and LP200 units. Thrombin generation was similar throughout the four plasma groups at any ratio.CONCLUSIONS:
Decreasing the dilution volume of LP facilitates reaching higher hematocrit and coagulation protein levels without a relevant increase in thrombin generation. This is due to preserved balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors in the concentrated LP preparations.