Treating Smoking in Adults With Co-occurring Acute Psychiatric and Addictive Disorders
Tobacco use is undertreated in individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUDs), with concerns that quitting smoking may compromise recovery. We evaluated outcomes of a tobacco intervention among psychiatric patients with co-occurring SUDs.Methods:
Data from 2 randomized tobacco treatment trials conducted in inpatient psychiatry were combined; analyses focused on the subsample with co-occurring SUDs (n = 216). Usual care provided brief advice to quit and nicotine replacement therapy during the smoke-free hospitalization. The intervention, initiated during hospitalization and continued 6 months after hospitalization, was tailored to readiness to quit smoking, and added a computer-assisted intervention at baseline, and 3 and 6 months; brief counseling; and 10 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy after hospitalization. Outcomes were 7-day point prevalence abstinence from 3 to 12 months and past 30-day reports of alcohol and illicit drug use.Results:
The sample consisted of 34% women, among which 36% were Caucasian, averaging 19 cigarettes/d prehospitalization; the groups were comparable at baseline. At 12 months, 22% of the intervention versus 11% of usual care participants were tobacco-abstinent (risk ratio 2.01, P = 0.03). Past 30-day abstinence from alcohol/drugs did not differ by group (22%); however, successful quitters were less likely than continued smokers to report past 30-day cannabis (18% vs 42%) and alcohol (22% vs 58%) use (P < 0.05), with no difference in other drug use.Conclusions:
Tobacco treatment in psychiatric patients with co-occurring SUDs was effective and did not adversely impact recovery. Quitting smoking was associated with abstinence from alcohol and cannabis at follow-up. The findings support addressing tobacco in conjunction with alcohol and other drugs in psychiatric treatment.