In the present study, members of the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, including IL-10 (TOIL-10) and IL-22 (TOIL-22) of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus), were cloned for the first time, and their expression patterns and 3D structures analyzed. The full-length cDNA sequences of TOIL-10 and TOIL-22 contained open reading frames of 564 and 567 bp, respectively. TOIL-10 and TOIL-22 shared higher homology (78%–89%) with the corresponding genes from various fish relative to other species (25%–34%) and contained the IL-10 family signature and four cysteine residues that are well conserved in other vertebrate IL-10 members. Phylogenetic tree analysis of our sequences alongside other IL-10 family proteins revealed that TOIL-10 and TOIL-22 cluster together with other teleost IL-10 and IL-22 molecules. Expression of TOIL-10 and TOIL-22 genes was ubiquitous in all tissues examined. The TOIL-10 gene was also highly expressed in skin, heart, gill, spleen, kidney, brain and liver, and lower levels were detected in intestine and muscle. High expression of the TOIL-22 gene was observed in gill, intestine, kidney, spleen, with the lowest levels in liver. TOIL-10 and TOIL-22 were rapidly activated after SAΔphoB immunization and significantly increased to peak levels at 12 h and 4 d in golden pompano kidney and spleen respectively following challenge. Expression in the brain reached peak levels at 4 d and 3 d respectively after post-immunization. Our results collectively indicate that TOIL-10 and TOIL-22 participate in the host immune response to bacterial infection. Moreover, TOIL-22 plays a potentially important role in mucosal immunity.