Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the most virulent agent to Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and causes a severe infectious disease called hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. Generally, barbel chub, Squaliobarbus curriculus, a genetically closely related species to grass carp, exhibits significant resistance against GCRV infection compared to grass carp. To investigate whether the Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) has got a vital role against the GCRV infection, the full cDNA sequence of tlr22 from barbel chub (Sctlr22) was cloned by RACE-PCR, and the structure and expression feature were studied. The complete cDNA sequence of Sctlr22 has a size of 3504 bp, encoding for 960 amino acid residues. Sctlr22 possesses typical structural features of the tlrs family, including 19 leucine rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane (TM) and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that barbel chub Tlr22 was clustered together with the Tlr22 of grass carp (Citlr22). Structurally, barbel chub Tlr22 have two different structure in LRRs domain and TIR domain with grass carp (Susceptible to GCRV), but was similar to that of Danio rerio and Cyprinus carpio (Resistance to GCRV). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis has shown that Sctlr22 is prominently expressed in immune relevant tissues such as head kidney and spleen. After GCRV infection, Sctlr22 expression level was up-regulated in four tested tissues and the highest expression of Sctlr22 appeared fast and higher than Citlr22. The interferon-β (ifn-β) expression level in CIK cells over-expressing fused cDNA encoding the LRR domain of Sctlr22 to the transmembrane and TIR domain of Citlr22 was significantly higher than that cells overexpressing Citlr22 after GCRV infection. The virus titer was significantly reduced compared to Citlr22 over-expressing cells. These results suggested that Sctlr22 seems to play a vital role in the immune response against GCRV.