The effect of grapeseed oil on performance, rumen fermentation, antioxidant status and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profile in lambs

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Ruminant meat is characterized by high contents of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which has been linked with a high cardiovascular diseases risk in humans (Givens, 2005). Diet is considered as very important factor to change the FA composition. Therefore, the use of plant oils having unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) such as soya bean, safflower, sunflower and linseed can change the FA profile of ruminant products (Nudda et al., 2015). Also, diet polyphenols can affect some bacterial strains involved in the biohydrogenation pathway of FA and change the composition of FA (Vasta et al., 2009, 2010). In particular, it has been shown that polyphenols can inhibit the proliferation and activity of Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which is involved in the last step of biohydrogenation of PUFA, which consists of the enzymatic reduction of vaccenic acid (VA) to stearic acid (Buccioni et al., 2015). The consequent ruminal accumulation of PUFA and their biohydrogenation intermediates (Khiaosa‐Ard et al., 2009; Vasta et al., 2009) could enhance the extent of rumen escape of these FAs and, consequently, could increase their concentrations in adipose tissues (Moate et al., 2014; Buccioni et al., 2015). Increasing the content of unsaturated fatty acids in milk could also increase susceptibility to oxidation. Therefore, the addition of antioxidants to PUFA‐supplemented diets to improve milk quality seems to be an advisable practice. (Manso et al., 2015). Many of the antioxidants used in the food industry are chemically synthesized (Singh et al., 2005). Natural antioxidants which derived from edible materials are in high demand for food applications amidst concerns over safety and toxicity of the consumption of these synthetic antioxidants (Ito et al., 1985).
In 2013, Iran produced more than two million metric tons of grapes (FAOSTAT, 2013). As grapeseeds consist approximately 5% of the fruit weight (Choi and Lee, 2009), so around 100 kton of grapeseeds is discarded annually in Iran.
Grapeseed oil is produced from the seeds in the pomace left over from juice and wine production by cold pressing method and thus adds value to the industry. This agricultural by product contain 10–20% oil (Crews et al., 2006), so annual production of GSO is approximately 10–20 kton in Iran and its nutritive value can be similar to other oil sources such as sunflower, flax and fish oils. An important characteristic of GSO is having very high amount of linoleic acid and presence of tocopherols and tocotrienols which exhibit strong antioxidant activity (Beveridge et al., 2005; Choi and Lee, 2009). In addition, grapeseed has higher level of polyphenol compounds such as proanthocyanidins, mainly composed of catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric and oligomeric procyanidins, which can be recovered by extraction (Monagas et al., 2003). So GSO can consider an alternative for other oil sources in the diet of ruminants to improve meat and milk quality. Jerónimo et al. (2012) found that adding grapeseed extract had no effect on lamb muscle FAs but reduces oxidation of meat lipids by lowering concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Therefore, it seems that GSO due to having high levels of linoleic acid, in addition to its capability to increase PUFA, it can also act as a natural antioxidant. According to our information, while a few studies have been conducted on grape by‐products in ruminant, there is no study about using GSO in ruminant nutrition. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of GSO on performance, rumen fermentation, antioxidant status and adipose FA profile in lambs.
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