Adnexal Carcinomas Treated With Mohs Micrographic Surgery: A Comprehensive Review

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Adnexal carcinomas (ACs) are rare cutaneous malignancies of sweat gland or pilosebaceous origin. Optimal treatment and metastatic potential of AC are poorly defined. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has been increasingly used to treat AC.


To review selected primary cutaneous AC and their treatment outcomes with MMS.


Literature review using PubMed search for articles related to primary cutaneous ACs.


Sebaceous carcinoma treated with MMS recurred and metastasized in 6.4% and 3.7%, respectively. Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma treated with MMS recurred and metastasized in 9.6% and 6.4%, respectively. After MMS, 4.7% of microcystic AC recurred with no reported metastases. After MMS, recurrences and metastases of trichilemmal carcinoma or hidradenocarcinoma have not been reported. Two (4.2%) regional lymph node metastases but no distant metastases or local recurrences have been reported in eccrine porocarcinoma. Squamoid eccrine duct tumor, pilomatrix carcinoma, and spiradenocarcinoma treated with MMS are also reviewed.


The rarity of ACs and the lack of comparative data on treatment makes conclusive recommendations on treatment difficult. Recent large case series and reviews suggest MMS is a useful and possibly superior treatment for AC and should be considered if primary cutaneous disease is suspected.

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