A Systematic Review of Different Implants and Approaches for Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty

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Abstract

Background:

Outcomes after implant arthroplasty for primary degenerative and posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint were different according to the implant design and surgical approach. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate outcomes of various types of implant arthroplasty for proximal interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis, with an emphasis on different surgical approaches.

Methods:

The authors searched all available literature in the PubMed and EMBASE databases for articles reporting on outcomes of implant arthroplasty for proximal interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis. Data collection included active arc of motion, extension lag, and complications. The authors combined the data of various types of surface replacement arthroplasty into one group for comparison with silicone arthroplasty.

Results:

A total of 849 articles were screened, yielding 40 studies for final review. The mean postoperative arc of motion and the mean gain in arc of motion of silicone implant with the volar approach were 58 and 17 degrees, respectively, which was greater than surface replacement implant with the dorsal approach at 51 and 8 degrees, respectively. The mean postoperative extension lag of silicone implant with the volar approach and surface replacement with the dorsal approach was 5 and 14 degrees, respectively. The revision rate of silicone implant with the volar approach and surface replacement with the dorsal approach was 6 percent and 18 percent at a mean follow-up of 41.2 and 51 months, respectively.

Conclusion:

Silicone implant with the volar approach showed the best arc of motion, with less extension lag and fewer complications after surgery among all the implant designs and surgical approaches.

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