The Local and Systemic Inflammatory Response in a Pig Burn Wound Model With a Pivotal Role for Complement
In patients with burns, a massive inflammatory response is induced which negatively affects the healing process of the burn wound and additionally exerts systemic effects. An important factor herein is the complement system. Here we analyzed the effects of burns on complement and inflammatory cells both locally and systemically after burn in time in a pig burn wound model. In burned pigs, burn wound biopsies and blood were collected up to 60 days after burn. Complement in blood as well as complement and inflammatory cells in the burn wound and several organs were determined. In the blood, C3 was significantly increased after 9 to 60 days, whereas C4 after 21 to 30 days after burn. In the burn wound, C3 levels were significantly increased after 9 days and C4 after 3 days, whereafter both declined after 21 and 9 days, respectively. Neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were significantly increased in the burn wound after 3 days, all declined after 21 days after burn. In the heart, at 60 days after burn, an increase of neutrophils and macrophages was observed, mainly in the right atrium. In contrast to the heart, the inflammatory cell infiltrates in the lungs, liver, and kidney of burned pigs were lower than in control pigs. In pigs, following burn there is a prolonged increase in complement levels both in the burn wound and the blood and increased inflammatory cell infiltrate in the burn wound and the heart. However, complement levels in the burn wound and in the blood seem not to be correlated in time.