Two-Dimensional Spoiled Gradient-Recalled Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver Using Respiratory Navigator-Gating Techniques

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Abstract

Objective

We assessed the feasibility of T1-weighted 2-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (2D SPGR) acquisition in steady-state imaging of the liver with various respiratory navigator gating techniques.

Methods

A total of 12 healthy volunteers underwent in-phase and out-of-phase 2D SPGR imaging of the liver during breath-holding and free-breathing. Four techniques for respiratory navigation, 2 conventional navigator techniques and 2 self-navigator techniques, were used for free-breathing imaging.

Results

Good navigator waveforms were obtained in conventional navigation, whereas fluctuations were evident in self navigation. All of the 4 navigator-based methods provided better images in terms of background signals and visual image quality compared with images obtained with no respiratory control. However, differences remained in comparison with breath-holding. Superiority of self-navigation to conventional navigation was not shown.

Conclusions

Navigator-gating techniques improved 2D SPGR images of the liver acquired during free-breathing, suggesting feasibility and beneficial effects, although navigator-based images were still inferior to breath-hold images.

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