Proton pump inhibitors do not increase the risk for recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis

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Abstract

Background and Aim:

The present study aimed to assess the real impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use on incidence of recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in a homogenous population composed of cirrhotic patients with a previous SBP where differences related with SBP incidence between PPI users and non-users are less likely to exist.

Methods:

This retrospective cohort study enrolled 307 cirrhotic patients taking diuretics for ascites control and had a previous SBP. Patients who took any PPI for at least 1 week prior to a second SBP were included in the PPI group. The incidence of a second SBP was a primary outcome and was compared between PPI group and non-PPI group before and after propensity score matching. Risk factors for a second SBP were investigated by multivariate analysis.

Results:

Second SBP occurred in 17 patients (29.3%) during mean 52.1 ± 5.2 months of PPI group and in 60 patients (24.1%) during mean 61.9 ± 4.8 months of non-PPI group, which did not differ (P = .185). In the matched cohort, second SBP similarly occurred in both groups [29.3% of PPI group vs 26.8% of non-PPI group (P = .271)]. According to the multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh score was the only significant risk factor for a second SBP (hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.50, P = .001). Isolated bacteria and clinical outcomes such as of mortality, presence of sepsis, and hospital stay did not differ between the two groups in the matched cohort.

Conclusion:

Proton pump inhibitor use is not a risk factor for recurrent SBP in cirrhotic patients.

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