Results on the relationship between CTLA4 -318C/T (rs5742909) gene polymorphism and risk of acute rejection in renal transplantation are still conflicting. This meta-analysis was performed to update the association between CTLA4 -318C/T and risk of acute rejection in renal transplantation. The association investigations were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library, and eligible studies were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Twelve reports were included in this meta-analysis for the association of CTLA4 -318C/T gene polymorphism with acute rejection risk in renal transplantation, consisting of 728 acute rejection patients and 1628 non-acute rejection controls. The association between CTLA4 -318C/T gene polymorphism and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation for overall populations was not found in this meta-analysis (T allele: OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.60-1.54, P=.88; TT genotype: OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.47-1.71, P=.74; CC genotype: OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.62-1.59, P=.98). Interestingly, T allele was associated with the risk of acute rejection in renal transplantation in African population. In conclusion, CTLA4 -318C/T gene polymorphism is not associated with the risk of acute rejection in renal transplantation in overall populations.