Gas6 Promotes Inflammatory (CCR2hiCX3CR1lo) Monocyte Recruitment in Venous Thrombosis

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Abstract

Objective—

Coagulation and inflammation are inter-related. Gas6 (growth arrest–specific 6) promotes venous thrombosis and participates to inflammation through endothelial-innate immune cell interactions. Innate immune cells can provide the initiating stimulus for venous thrombus development. We hypothesize that Gas6 promotes monocyte recruitment during venous thrombosis.

Approach and Results—

Deep venous thrombosis was induced in wild-type and Gas6-deficient (−/−) mice using 5% FeCl3 and flow reduction in the inferior vena cava. Total monocyte depletion was achieved by injection of clodronate before deep venous thrombosis. Inflammatory monocytes were depleted using an anti–C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antibody. Similarly, injection of an anti–chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody induced CCL2 depletion. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to characterize the monocytes recruited to the thrombus. In vivo, absence of Gas6 was associated with a reduction of monocyte recruitment in both deep venous thrombosis models. Global monocyte depletion by clodronate leads to smaller thrombi in wild-type mice. Compared with wild type, the thrombi from Gas6−/− mice contain less inflammatory (CCR2hiCX3CR1lo) monocytes, consistent with a Gas6-dependent recruitment of this monocyte subset. Correspondingly, selective depletion of CCR2hiCX3CR1lo monocytes reduced the formation of venous thrombi in wild-type mice demonstrating a predominant role of the inflammatory monocytes in thrombosis. In vitro, the expression of both CCR2 and CCL2 were Gas6 dependent in monocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, impacting monocyte migration. Moreover, Gas6-dependent CCL2 expression and monocyte migration were mediated via JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase).

Conclusions—

This study demonstrates that Gas6 specifically promotes the recruitment of inflammatory CCR2hiCX3CR1lo monocytes through the regulation of both CCR2 and CCL2 during deep venous thrombosis.

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