Temporal cascade of inflammatory cytokines and cell-type populations in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)-mediated aneurysm healing
We have previously shown that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes aneurysm healing.Objective
To determine the temporal cascade and durability of aneurysm healing.Methods
Murine carotid aneurysms were treated with MCP-1-releasing or poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-only coils. Aneurysm healing was assessed by quantitative measurements of intraluminal tissue ingrowth on 5 μm sections by blinded observers.Results
Aneurysm healing occurred in stages characteristic of normal wound healing. The 1st stage (day 3) was characterized by a spike in neutrophils and T cells. The 2nd stage (week 1) was characterized by an influx of macrophages and CD45+ cells significantly greater with MCP-1 than with PLGA (p<0.05). The third stage (week 2–3) was characterized by proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts (greater with MCP-1 than with PLGA, p<0.05). The fourth stage (3–6 months) was characterized by leveling off of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. M1 macrophages were greater at week 1, whereas M2 macrophages were greater at weeks 2 and 3 with MCP-1 than with PLGA. Interleukin 6 was present early and increased through week 2 (p<0.05 compared with PLGA) then decreased and leveled off through 6 months. Tumour necrosis factor α was present early and remained constant through 6 months. MCP-1 and PLGA treatment had similar rates of tissue ingrowth at early time points, but MCP-1 had a significantly greater tissue ingrowth at week 3 (p<0.05), which persisted for 6 months.Conclusions
The sequential cascade is consistent with an inflammatory model of injury, repair, and remodeling.