Generation and optimization of the self-administered pediatric bleeding questionnaire and its validation as a screening tool for von Willebrand disease

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Our objective was to generate, optimize, and validate a self-administered pediatric bleeding questionnaire (Self-PBQ) as a screening tool for von Willebrand disease (VWD) in children referred to the hematology clinic for the first time.

Study Design

The Self-PBQ was generated by combining the validated expert-administered PBQ and the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) bleeding assessment tool (BAT). Medical terminology was translated into lay language requiring a grade 4 reading level. In Phase 1, the Self-PBQ was optimized and the level of agreement between the Self-PBQ and the expert-administered PBQ was determined. Phase 2 established the normal range of bleeding scores (BSs) of the Self-PBQ. Phase 3 examined the Self-PBQ as a screening tool for first-time referrals to the hematology clinic.


The Self-PBQ is a reliable surrogate for the expert-administered PBQ with an excellent intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.917. The Self-PBQ was scored with the PBQ and the ISTH-BAT scoring systems, for which its normal BS ranges are –1 to 2 or 0 to 2, respectively. A positive Self-PBQ BS (≥3) had a sensitivity of 78%, a specificity of 37%, a positive predictive value of 0.18, and a negative predictive value of 0.91 for identifying VWD in children being investigated by a hematologist for a bleeding disorder.


The Self-PBQ generates comparable BSs to the expert-administered PBQ and is a reliable, reasonably sensitive screening tool to incorporate into the assessment of children presenting to a hematologist for the investigation of an inherited bleeding disorder.

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