Lineage switch under blinatumomab treatment of relapsed common acute lymphoblastic leukemia without MLL rearrangement

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Abstract

Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engaging αCD19 antibody used in refractory or relapsed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Recently, lineage switch to a myeloid phenotype has been described following CD19 targeting treatment in three pediatric patients with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) rearranged ALL. We report the case of a female who received blinatumomab for a first relapse of ALL without MLL alterations. She suffered from a second relapse early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and was treated with blinatumomab again. During this treatment, the leukemia lost CD19 expression as well as nearly all other B-cell markers, while still harboring the initial minimal residual disease marker, and switched to a myeloid phenotype.

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