To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of cyadox, an antimicrobial agent, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (50 rats/sex/group) were fed diets containing cyadox (0, 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg) for up to two years. There were significant decreases in body weight, feed intake and feed efficiency in both genders during most of the period in the 2000 mg/kg group. Significant decreases in serum ALT were observed in the 2000 mg/kg group at weeks 52, 78 and 104. For the control, 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg groups, the tumor incidence in females was 33.3%, 37.2%, 40.0% and 19.0%, while it in males it was 18.9%, 2.6%, 17.1% and 13.6%, respectively. At histopathology, no increases in tumor incidence were attributed to treatment with cyadox. The mild swelling and fatty degeneration in hepatocytes, and mild swelling and tubular necrosis in the kidney were observed in 2000 mg/kg group. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18–156.28 mg/kg b.w./day). In conclusion, cyadox was not carcinogenic to rats with the liver and kidney as the target organs, and the side chain may be involved in toxicity and carcinogenicity mediated by QdNOs.