Paratesticular Soft-Tissue Masses in Orchiectomy Specimens: A 17-Year Survey of Primary and Incidental Cases From One Institution

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Abstract

The paratestis (PT) is defined by the testicular tunics, epididymis, spermatic cord, rete testis, and embryonic remnants. It gives rise to a large diversity of pathologies, including those of soft tissue, which may prompt orchiectomy. We performed a 17-year search of our database for orchiectomies for a PT soft-tissue mass. In a total of 4741 orchiectomy specimens, 138 orchiectomies were performed for primary neoplastic or nonneoplastic masses of the PT soft tissue or had an incidental PT soft-tissue mass. Of these, 65.9% were neoplastic. The mean age was 40.2 years (range: <1 to 87 years) and was similar for neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. The most common malignancies were rhabdomyosarcoma (31/63 malignancies), liposarcoma (19/63), and leiomyosarcoma (5/63), with the former occurring in younger patients (average: 18.3 years). No malignancies were incidental. The most common benign neoplasm was spermatic cord lipoma (24/28 of benign neoplasms); however, most were incidental. This was followed by leiomyoma (3/28) and hemangioma (1/28). The most common nonneoplastic lesions were adrenal rests (22/47 nonneoplastic cases); however, all were incidental findings. Of 47 nonneoplastic masses, 22 prompted orchiectomy, and of these, the most common diagnosis was fibrous/nodular periorchitis (11/47). Of 88 nonincidental lesions, 25 were either benign neoplasms (3/25) or nonneoplastic (22/25). These data indicate that PT soft-tissue neoplasms prompting orchiectomy are disproportionately rhabdomyosarcomas, though these are principally in young patients. In older patients, malignancies are more frequently liposarcomas. However, almost one-third of orchiectomies performed for PT soft-tissue masses yield benign lesions, indicating an opportunity to reduce unnecessary procedures.

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