Pseudogenes in gastric cancer pathogenesis: a review article

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Abstract

Cancer burden rises globally at an alarming pace. According to GLOBOCAN 2012, gastric cancer (GC) is regarded as the fifth most common malignancy in the world. Being twice as high in men as in women, GC is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in both sexes globally. Being labeled as ‘junk DNA', pseudogenes were considered as nonfunctional ‘trash', which contribute nothing to survival of the organism; therefore, a number of strategies have been developed to circumvent their accidental detection. Recent progresses have confirmed that pseudogenes can have broad and multifaceted spectrum of activities in human cancers in general and GC in particular. Furthermore, the mentioned functions are parental gene-dependent and/or -independent. Therefore, pseudogenes can be regarded as the emerging class of elaborate modulators of gene expression involved in pathogenesis of human cancers including gastric adenocarcinoma.

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