Anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid-4-O-β-D-glucoside in reducing acute lung injury in mice infected with influenza virus
Rosmarinic acid-4-O-β-D-glucoside (RAG) is a dicaffeoyl phenolic compound isolated from Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai. Preliminary studies show that RAG has significant anti-inflammatory properties and can alleviate ear swelling in mice and the paw swelling in rats. Here, the anti-influenza effects of RAG were investigated in mice infected with A/FM/1/47 H1N1 virus. The survival rate and body weight were observed, the lung edema, virus copies, inflammatory cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and oxidative damage indexes (including SOD, MDA, NO, and CAT) were measured. Moreover, immune cell recruitment in alveoli was measured with white blood cells and differential counts. Therapeutic RAG concentrations substantially improve the symptoms, mitigate body weight loss and alleviate lung edema induced by virus, thus improve survival protection effects. Furthermore, RAG was shown to regulate influenza virus-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, specifically by downregulating the Th1 cell cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and upregulating the Th2 cell cytokines IL-4, IL-5. Cell migration and infiltration were also diminished after RAG administration.