We examined effects of high-intensity training on chemically induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. We also investigated mechanisms that may underlie the results obtained, with a focus on secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which has been proposed as an exercise-related factor of colon cancer prevention.Methods
After an administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, F344 rats executed high-intensity intermittent swimming training (HIIST) (twelve 20-s swimming with a weight [16% body weight] with 10-s pauses between the bouts) 5 d·wk−1 for 4 wk. The acute and chronic effects of the HIIST on SPARC were evaluated in rats. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator on SPARC in rat serum and epitrochlearis muscle. In human subjects, we determined serum SPARC after exhaustive bicycling consisting of six to seven bouts of exercise at 170% V˙O2max with 10-s rests between the bouts (high-intensity intermittent bicycling [HIIB]). The SPARC mRNA in human vastus lateralis was measured before and after the HIIB for 4 d·wk−1 for 6 wk (HIIB-training [HIIBT]).Results
The numbers of ACF were lower in the HIIST (47 ± 22) compared with the control (122 ± 47) rats (P < 0.05). SPARC in epitrochlearis and serum after HIIS of the trained rat was higher than that in the control resting rats. In vitro and vivo AMPK stimulation increased mRNA and SPARC protein in rat epitrochlearis, respectively. The human serum SPARC after the HIIB was elevated. SPARC mRNA in human muscle was elevated after the HIIBT.Conclusions
The results demonstrated that HIIST inhibits 1,2-dimethylhydrazine–induced colon ACF development. This effect may be explained by SPARC induction by the exercise intensity-related factor AMPK, potentially explaining the preventive effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training against colon cancer.