Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an acute cardiac syndrome simulating myocardial infarction that is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery obstruction. Reverse TTC (rTTC) is a recently described variant of TTC. This review defines and compares both forms of TTC, stating their resemblances and differences.Methods
We conducted a search of the MEDLINE database. Forty-one cases of rTTC met our eligibility criteria and were summarized in a synthesis of the demographic features, clinical characteristics, and laboratory studies.Results
Of the 41 patients studied, 73% were women. Patients’ ages ranged from 19 to 69 years and the mean age was 43. The predominant electrocardiogram finding was ST-segment depression, whereas ST-segment elevation was present in only 6 patients (14.5%). Troponin levels were raised in 92.6% of the patients, with a mean troponin I of 7.7 ng/mL. All of the patients had wall motion abnormalities on echocardiography and the mean ejection fraction was 29.3%. Of the 27 patients (66%) who had a documented angiography, 22 (81.5%) had normal coronaries and 5 (18.5%) had minor or mild obstructive coronary artery disease. Of the 41 patients, 9 (22%) died, and the mean recovery time of the ejection fraction in the survivors was 16 days.Conclusions
rTTC is a distinct presentation from the classic TTC. Remarkable differences exist between both forms in terms of mean age, sex, electrocardiogram presentation, troponin levels, and mortality.