Parental body mass index and its association with body composition, physical fitness and lifestyle factors in their 4-year-old children: results from the MINISTOP trial
To examine the association between parental body mass index (BMI) and their offspring's body composition, physical fitness and lifestyle factors (that is, sedentary time, physical activity and diet).SUBJECTS/METHODS:
A total of 307 preschoolers (4.5 ± 0.1 years) and their parents (fathers: 38.1 ± 5.1 years and mothers: 35.6 ± 4.2 years) participated in this study. Parental BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height. Preschoolers body composition was assessed using: BMI, fat mass percentage, fat mass index, fat-free mass index (measured via air-displacement plethysmography) and waist circumference. Physical fitness was assessed by the PREFIT fitness battery. Lifestyle factors were assessed using the ActiGraph wGT3x-BT (sedentary time and physical activity), and the mobile-phone based tool for energy balance in children (diet).RESULTS:
Parental BMI were positively associated with their offspring's BMI (paternal BMI: standardised beta, β = 0.233, P < 0.001; maternal BMI: β = 0.186, P = 0.001), fat mass index (paternal BMI: β = 0.130, P = 0.026; maternal BMI: β = 0.163, P = 0.005), fat-free mass index (paternal BMI: β = 0.214, P < 0.001; maternal BMI: β = 0.119, P = 0.036) and waist circumference (paternal BMI: β = 0.178, P = 0.001; maternal BMI: β = 0.179, P = 0.001). A negative association was found between maternal BMI and their offspring's standing long jump test (β = − 0.132, P = 0.022). Paternal BMI was associated with their offspring's sedentary time (β = 0.100, P = 0.026), whereas parental BMI was not associated with neither physical activity nor diet (all P ≥ 0.104).CONCLUSIONS:
Parental BMI was positively associated with their offspring's BMI, fat as well as fat-free mass index and waist circumference. Moreover, a higher paternal and maternal BMI were related to higher levels of sedentary time and a lower performance in the standing long jump test of their offspring, respectively.