Indications of Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser Therapy for Slow-Flow Vascular Malformations in Oral Region

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Abstract

Background:

Indications for laser therapy for slow-flow vascular malformations in the oral and maxillofacial regions have not been clearly documented. The authors aimed to estimate the frequency of resolution of slow-flow vascular malformations and to identify risk and prognostic factors associated with resolution in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser treatment.

Methods:

This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Patients who had diagnosed slow-flow vascular malformations were continuously assigned to receive KTP laser therapy. All patients had intralesional laser photocoagulation performed under local anesthesia. Administered power of the KTP laser was fixed at 2 watts throughout the procedure in all patients. The primary endpoint was to understand the frequency of resolution of slow-flow vascular malformations in KTP laser treatment. Secondary endpoints were: treatment outcomes based on lesion size; treatment outcomes based on location; treatment outcomes based on total energy in joules; types of complications. Treatment outcomes were judged by a clinical assessment as well as reduction in lesion size on magnetic resonance imaging.

Results:

Data were obtained from 26 patients (9 men, 17 women) with 38 lesions. The average lesion size was 13.5 ± 7.7 mm. Treatment outcomes based on lesion size showed that cure and regression were obtained in lesions less than 30 mm in size. However, lesions larger than 30 mm showed no response. Lesions in the tongue and lips showed higher cure rates than in other areas. Treatment outcomes based on administered total energy in joules showed that 68% of lesions were treated and responded well at less than 400 joules. Complication rate was relatively high in the buccal mucosal lesions. Immediate postoperative complications such as necrosis were more common in high-energy administration than in low-energy administration.

Conclusion:

Our results indicated that KTP laser therapy was effective for slow-flow vascular malformations less than 30 mm in size without significant side effects.

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