The Strategy of Delayed Reconstruction of the Mandible in War Injuries

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Abstract

The most common causes of mandibular defects are ablative surgery of benign or malignant tumors, severe trauma, inflammatory diseases, and osteoradionecrosis. War injuries are another cause for mandibular defect. Reconstruction of the mandible is considered a challenge to the maxillofacial surgeon due to the accompanying functional and cosmetic importance. The object of this article was to show the role of nonvascularized bone graft in the reconstruction of segmental defect of the mandible resulted from projectiles and its snags. Seventeen patients underwent reconstruction of defect in the body of the mandible using non-vascularized iliac bone graft,in sixteen patients the grafts were fixed by reconstruction plate and in one by stainless-steel wire. In the emergency phase in which life-saving measures were done, in the immediate phase, treatments of associated facial and systemic injuries were carried out. The delayed phase includes the reconstruction of the residual defects and rehabilitation. A total of 17 male patients with a mean age of 34.5 years underwent reconstructive surgery, the time lapse between the injury and the delayed phase of treatment ranged from 20 days to 3 months. The size of the defects ranged from 4 to 7 cm. Treatment was considered successful in 15 patients (88.2%) in whom the grafts were incorporated to mandible with improvement of facial contour and symmetry and satisfactory occlusion of the remaining teeth. Nonvascularized bone graft is considered a feasible option for the reconstruction of a relatively small mandibular defect, especially in ascetic conditions for its role in improving facial appearance and to less extent functional benefit and more advanced method for the reconstruction needed to be introduced especially in war injuries.

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