Stellate ganglion blockade and bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation in patients with life‐threatening ventricular arrhythmias
Electrical storm due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) is life threatening. Frequently, patients who suffer this condition require mechanical circulatory device including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Increased sympathetic tone is the norm in such situations and cardiac autonomic modulation represents a potential target to prevent or treat VT/VF. Additionally, it can be employed to “temporize” the clinical situation until more definitive treatments can be initiated. We report 6 patients with refractory VT/VF treated with stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) and/or bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD).