Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a set of diseases that carries both the risk of sudden death and long-term morbidity. Several studies conducted in Brazilian hospitals have identified that most patients considered at high risk for VTE do not receive prophylactic anticoagulant prescription properly. Risk of VTE in patients under home care is unknown. The objective of this integrative review is to identify evidence regarding prophylaxis of VTE in home care. The databases PubMed/Medline, LILACS, and National Guideline Clearinghouse were searched for articles published between January 1985 and June 2015. Although there is an extensive literature and clear guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in the hospital environment, studies on the same subject in home care are scarce, sometimes small, and almost exclusively based on retrospective collection of chart data. Additional research on VTE prophylaxis in the home care setting is needed in order to develop evidence-based practice guidelines.