The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resveratrol could reduce nigral iron levels to prevent the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of C57BL/6 mice induced by rotenone. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder; elevated iron levels in the SN participate in neuronal death in PD. Resveratrol is a kind of polyphenolic compounds and possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory biological functions. Although many research groups have investigated the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against PD, the precise mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects on dopaminergic neuron are poorly defined. In this study, rotenone-treated mice were used to examine neuroprotective roles of resveratrol in PD. Sixty-four adult C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: vehicle control mice, rotenone mice, resveratrol-treated rotenone mice, resveratrol mice. In the present study, we found that chronic administration of rotenone significantly induced motor coordination impairment and increased iron levels and dopaminergic neuron loss in SN in mice. Resveratrol administration significantly protected mice from rotenone-induced motor coordination impairment, elevated iron levels, and dopaminergic neuronal loss. Our results show that resveratrol can elicit neuroprotective effects on rotenone-induced parkinsonism through reducing nigral iron levels.