Hyperoxia or Therapeutic Hypothermia During Resuscitation from Non-Lethal Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine

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We previously demonstrated beneficial effects of 22 h of hyperoxia following near-lethal porcine hemorrhagic shock, whereas therapeutic hypothermia was detrimental. Therefore, we investigated whether shorter exposure to hyperoxia (12 h) would still improve organ function, and whether 12 h of hypothermia with subsequent rewarming could avoid deleterious effects after less severe hemorrhagic shock.

Twenty-seven anesthetized and surgically instrumented pigs underwent 3 h of hemorrhagic shock by removal of 30% of the blood volume and titration of the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to 40 mm Hg. Post-shock, pigs were randomly assigned to control, hyperoxia (FIO2 100% for 12 h) or hypothermia group (34°C core temperature for 12 h with subsequent rewarming). Before, at the end of shock, after 12 and 23 h of resuscitation, data sets comprising hemodynamics, blood gases, and parameters of inflammation and organ function were acquired. Postmortem, kidney samples were collected for immunohistochemistry and western blotting.

Hyperoxia exerted neither beneficial nor detrimental effects. In contrast, mortality in the hypothermia group was significantly higher compared with controls (67% vs. 11%). Hypothermia impaired circulation (MAP 64 (57;89) mm Hg vs. 104 (98; 114) mm Hg) resulting in metabolic acidosis (lactate 11.0 (6.6;13.6) mmol L−1 vs. 1.0 (0.8;1.5) mmol L−1) and reduced creatinine clearance (26 (9;61) mL min−1 vs. 77 (52;80) mL min−1) compared to the control group after 12 h of resuscitation. Impaired kidney function coincided with increased renal 3-nitrotyrosine formation and extravascular albumin accumulation.

In conclusion, hyperoxia proved to be safe during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. The lacking organ-protective effects of hyperoxia compared to resuscitation from near-lethal hemorrhage suggest a dependence of the effectiveness of hyperoxia from shock severity. In line with our previous report, therapeutic hypothermia (and rewarming) was confirmed to be detrimental most likely due to vascular barrier dysfunction.

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