The genetic architecture inSaccharomyces cerevisiaethat contributes to variation in drug response to the antifungals benomyl and ketoconazole
The genetic basis of variation in drug response was investigated in individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that exhibited different susceptibility to two antifungal agents: benomyl and ketoconazole. Following dose-response screening of 25 strains, 4 were selected on the basis of resistance or sensitivity relative to the standard laboratory strain BY. UWOPS87-2421 and L-1374 were respectively resistant and sensitive to benomyl; DBVPG6044 and Y12 were respectively resistant and sensitive to ketoconazole. We used advanced intercross lines and next generation sequencing-bulk segregant analysis to characterise the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underpinning drug responses after drug selection. Drug response was controlled by multiple QTL, ranging from a minimum of 5 to a maximum of 60 loci, almost all of which were not the primary drug target. For each drug, the resistant and the sensitive strain exhibited a number of shared loci, but also had strain-specific QTL. In our analysis, it was possible to estimate genetic effect of QTL, and a number of those shared between resistant and sensitive strains exhibited variable effect on the response phenotype. Thus, drug responses arise as a result of different genetic architectures, depending on the genetic background of the individual strain in question.Graphical Abstract Figure.
Using yeast strains as a genetic model for human individuals, it was discovered that drug response is controlled by multiple genes, almost all outside the primary target of the drug.