Monoclonal gammopathies comprise a spectrum of clonal plasma cell disorders that include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. In this review, we outline the epidemiology, etiology, classification, diagnosis, and treatment of monoclonal gammopathy–associated peripheral neuropathy. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is relatively common in the general population, with a prevalence of 3% to 4% among individuals older than age 50 years. Therefore, the presence of M protein in a patient with neuropathy does not automatically indicate a causal relationship. Monoclonal gammopathy–associated peripheral neuropathy is often a difficult diagnosis with limited treatment options. Studies addressing the optimal approach to diagnosis and management of this entity are limited. In addition to a review of the literature, we present a diagnostic approach to patients with monoclonal gammopathy–associated peripheral neuropathy and discuss available data and options for treatment.