Hailey–Hailey Disease With Coexistent Herpes Virus Infection: Insights Into the Diagnostic Conundrum of Herpetic/Pseudoherpetic Features in Cutaneous Acantholytic Disorders
The specific histopathologic diagnosis of a primary acantholytic disorder takes into account the distribution and extent of acantholysis, presence or absence of dyskeratosis, nature of the dermal inflammatory cell infiltrate, and immunofluorescence findings. Herpes virus infection is a common cause of secondary acantholysis where distinctive viral cytopathic changes aid in making it a clear-cut diagnosis in majority of cases. We present a case of coexistence of Hailey–Hailey disease and herpes simplex virus infection to compare and contrast their histopathologic features. This is imperative because acantholytic cells from primary acantholytic disorders may occasionally show cytological features traditionally associated with herpes virus infection (pseudoherpetic changes). The objective of this article is to create a greater awareness of pseudoherpetic changes and also to explore the clinical significance of coexistence of a primary acantholytic disorder and herpes virus infection, as in this case.