Bombesin receptor-activated protein (BRAP) is highly expressed in human bronchial epithelial cells. Recent studies have shown that BRAP reduces oxidative stress, inhibits airway inflammation and suppresses nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity. Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a potent inducer of mucin5AC (MUC5AC), which is considered the predominant mucin secreted by human airway epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that BRAP may regulate NE-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in a bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE16). We also investigated the underlying mechanism involved in the process. In this study, we found that BRAP was present in HBE16 human bronchial epithelial cells and was significantly increased by NE. Next, we found that the up-regulation of BRAP by pEGFP-N1-BRAP caused a significant decrease in the increased levels of MUC5AC expression, NF-κB activity, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) induced by NE. Meanwhile, there was a significant decrease in ROS, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels when BRAP was up-regulated by pEGFP-N1-BRAP. Moreover, when cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1-BRAP and pretreated with NF-κB, ERK or EGFR inhibitors before the NE stimulation, there were further decreased in MUC5AC expression, NF-κB activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and EGFR. These results suggest that BRAP plays an important role in airway inflammation and its overexpression may regulate NE-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in HBE16 cells via the EGFR/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway.