The study objective was to evaluate the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of young adults who underwent an arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries.Methods:
Sixty-seven adults with transposition of the great arteries (aged 22.9 ± 3.3 years) and 43 healthy subjects matched in age, gender, and educational level participated. Global cognitive functioning, psychologic state, and health-related quality of life were evaluated using validated tools. We analyzed patient-related and procedure-related risk factors associated with cognitive and psychosocial outcomes.Results:
Some 69% of patients had an intelligence quotient greater than 85 (normal range, 85-115). Mean full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotients were lower in patients (94.9 ± 15.3, 96.8 ± 16.2, 93.7 ± 14.6, respectively) than in healthy subjects (103.4 ± 12.3, P = .003; 102.5 ± 11.5, P = .033; 103.8 ± 14.3, P < .001, respectively). Cognitive difficulties (intelligence quotient ≤−1 standard deviation) and impairments (intelligence quotient ≤−2 standard deviations) were more frequent in patients than in the general population (31% vs 16%, P = .001; 6% vs 2%, P = .030). Patients with cognitive difficulties had lower educational level (P < .001) and more grade retention at school (P = .007). Patients reported an overall satisfactory health-related quality of life; however, those with cognitive or psychologic difficulties reported poorer quality of life. Predictors of worse outcomes included lower parental socioeconomic and educational status, older age at surgery, and longer hospitalization stay.Conclusions:
Despite satisfactory outcomes in most adults with transposition of the great arteries, a substantial proportion has cognitive or psychologic difficulties that may reduce their academic success and quality of life. Further studies are needed to better understand the long-term outcome of this population to provide prevention, surveillance, and care strategies.